PLANIFICACIÓN DEL PRODUCTO HOTELERO.

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Quien trabaja en este sector sabe que la gestión de los servicios turísticos necesita, además de la capacidad profesional, de cualidades humanas específicas y una gran disponibilidad a la recalificación ya que los cambio son constantes. Debido a que los cambios son continuos, hay que tomar conciencia de que las estrategias de estandarización del producto y las economías de escala seguidas por el crecimiento y desarrollo, corren el riesgo de ser obsoletas.

A veces por ejemplo es verdad que el cliente al frente de un precio contenido está dispuesto en adaptarse pero en los últimos años las empresas hoteleras empezaron a elegir apuntar a una diferenciación y personalización del servicio para responder a las exigencias de la demanda. Es por eso que las empresas hoteleras intentan proponer una oferta diferenciada en algunos casos hasta tratando de anticipar los cambios de mercado para poder adecuarse rápidamente.

Esto abre la reflexión a un estudio atento a la PLANIFICACION del producto hotelero. Siguiendo el modelo de Medlik y después de resaltar el hecho de que las empresas están siendo miradas desde una óptica sistémica junto al ambiente en el cual operan e impactan, es posible definir el producto turístico como el resultado de una estratificación de las siguientes componentes:

La ubicación

Los facilities

Los servicios

La imagen

En las estructuras más complejas hasta se hace una subdivisión de la tipología de management: operativo e inmobiliario. Mientras el primero es el que gestiona el producto de alojamiento y reglamenta más el dimensionamiento económico que se refiere a la oferta de servicios, el segundo se ocupa de inversión que se refieren a la estructura en sí y dirige la fase de construcción y restructuración del edificio y selecciona la distribución de los espacios y de los varios servicios y tienen responsabilidad hacia todo lo que es el dimensionamiento físico.

De todos modos antes de pasar a analizar el proceso de creación del valor que trataré en el próximo artículo, me gustaría hacer una reflexión sobre el último punto, que define el producto turístico según Medlik, es decir la imagen, que hoy juega un rol muy importante a nivel de presentación y venta del producto e impacto del mismo en el mercado. La imagen es la combinación entre dos factores: la forma en la cual la empresa se propone hacia el mundo exterior y la forma en la cual los clientes interiorizan y perciben tal representación. La “calidad comunicada” se puede pensar como la interfaz entre la calidad requerida y ofrecida, porque por un lado influencia las expectativas de los huéspedes/clientes y por el otro permite a las empresas de posicionar su producto.

Los otros tres elementos es decir ubicación, facilities y servicios, se unen a atributos inmateriales como la marca, la estética y la ambientación. La imagen positiva acciona como multiplicador de la percepción de estos elementos mientras en el caso en el que la imagen se arruine se crea una separación neta entre calidad emitida y percibida.

Por más que una empresa hotelera pueda direccionar su oferta a diferentes tipologías de mercado, tiene que saber primero cómo seleccionar el segmento que más se adapta al tipo de oferta que su establecimiento puede ofrecer con su combo de componentes.

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